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Infectious Diseases

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
The upper respiratory tract consists of nose, paranazal sinuses, middle ear, nazopharynx and larynx. URTIs are the most common infections affecting people throughout their lifetime. People get these infections more than once a year.

Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus are the bacteria consisting the most common causes of URTIs. Empirical treatment is planned considering these pathogens. URTIs lasting less than 4 weeks, between 4 and 12 weeks and more than 12 weeks are called “acute URTIs”, “subacute URTIs” and “chronic URTI sinusitis”, repectively.

A) Sinusitis: Cavities within the bones around the nose and eyes are called “sinuses”, and the inflammation of the mucosa lining these cativies is called “sinusitis.” Sinusitis is seen more often in the winter and its main symptoms are throbbing headache, pain hitting around and behind the eyes, nasal congestion, purulent post nasal drainage. Early diagnosis and treatment is important in order to prevent sinusitis from becoming chronic and worsening to a level requiring surgery.

B) Otitis Media (Middle Ear Infection): Characterised with inflammation and purulent fluid accumulation in the middle ear. Symptoms include ear pain, otorrhea, hearing loss and fever. Pathogenic bacteria are responsible of 50-60% of cases. It is mostly seen in children below age 15.

C) Pharyngitis and tonsillitis (Inflammation of the tonsils): Inflammation of the pharynx and tonsils caused by various microorganisms. Like in the other URTI’s, its causative pathogens are viruses and bacteria. Severe sore throat and difficulty are the symptoms associated with pharyngitis. These symptoms are often seen with pyrexia. Symptoms of tonsillitis are pain during swallowing, confused with ear pain. This pain is associated with unwillingness  to eat in small children. Pain is often accompanied with pyrexia, fatigue, headache and vomiting  

Genitourinary System Infections

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
UTI is a bacterial infection affecting all age ranges and both genders. Urine, urethra, urinary bladder, ureters, kidneys and prostate are in the scope of UTI. E.coli is the pathogen responsible for 85% of cases. Other pathogens are Gram(+) strains. 
• Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococci (Salmonella, Shigella),
• Klebsiella pneumoniae, and
• Proteus mirabilis
A) Cystitis:
Involving the urinary bladder, this UTI manifests with complaints of pollakiuria or feeling the need of urination.

B) Pyelonephritis
Involving the urinary bladder and kidneys, this UTI manifests with fever, pain and sensitivity in chest and lower back area.
Diseases transmitted via genital route

These are infections mainly transmitted by sexual intercourse. If a person is diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection, this means that there is at least one more person with this disease. Genital ulcer adenopathy, urethritis in males, serviticis, pelvic inflammatory disease and vaginitis are the main sexually transmitted diseases.
Urethritis in males is a genitourinary infection type manifesting with urethral discharge and itching. Main pathogens are:
• N.gonorrhoeae, C.trachomatis, T.vaginalis, H.simplex ve M.genitalium

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